Quality Improvement Research

Centers participating in Vermont Oxford Network multi-center quality improvement collaboratives frequently publish the results of the collaboratives’ efforts. Participating centers must follow guidelines specific to the collaborative as well as Vermont Oxford Network’s Policy on Data Use. Vermont Oxford Network also participates in quality improvement research outside of collaboratives.

Related Publications

Bhat R, Custodio H, McCurley C, Whitehurst R, Gulati R, Jha OP, Bhat J, Estrada B, Hill A, Eyal F, Zayek M. Reducing antibiotic utilization rate in preterm infants: a quality improvement initiative. Journal of Perinatology. 2018; 38: 421-429. PubMed: 29396511

Pai VV, Lee HC, Profit J. Improving uptake of key perinatal interventions using statewide quality collaboratives. Clinics of Perinatology. 2018; 45(2): 165-180. PubMed: 29747881

Makri V, Davies G, Cannell S, Willson K, Winterson L, Webb J, Kandhari A, Mansour M, Thomas J, Morris G, Matthes J, Banerjee S. Managing antibiotics wisely: a quality improvement programme in a tertiary neonatal unit in the UK. BMJ Open Quality. 2018; 7(2). PubMed: 29756072 Available for PDF download.

Celenza JF, Zayack D, Buus-Frank ME, Horbar JD. Family involvement in quality improvement: From bedside advocate to system advisor. Clin Perinatol. 2017; 44(3): 553-566. PubMed: 28802339

Ehret DY, Patterson JK, Bose CL. Improving neonatal care: A global perspective. Clin Perinatol. 2017; 44(3): 567-582. PubMed: 28802340

Hagadorn JI, Sink DW, Buus-Frank ME, Edwards EM, Morrow KA, Horbar JD, Ferrelli K, Soll RF. Alarm safety and oxygen saturation targets in the Vermont Oxford network iNICQ 2015 collaborative. J Perinatol. 2017; 37(3): 270-276. PubMed: 27977012

Patrick SW, Schumacher RE, Horbar JD, Buus-Frank ME, Edwards EM, Morrow KA, Ferrelli KR, Picarillo AP, Gupta M, Soll RF. Improving care for neonatal abstinence syndrome. Pediatrics. 2016; 137(5): e20153835. PubMed: 27244809

Birenbaum HJ, Pfoh ER, Helou S, Pane MA, Marinkovich GA, Dentry A, Yeh HC, Updegraff L, Arnold C, Liverman S, Cawman H. Chronic lung disease in very low birth weight infants: Persistence and improvement of a quality improvement process in a tertiary level neonatal intensive care unit. J Neonatal Perinatal Med. 2016; 9(2): 187-194. PubMed: 27197932

Grooms HR, Froehle CM, Provost LP, Handyside J, Kaplan HC. Improving the context supporting quality improvement in a neonatal intensive care unit quality collaborative: an exploratory field study. American Journal of Medical Quality. 2017; 32(3): 313-321. PubMed: 27117636

Dukhovny D, Pursley DM, Kirpalani HM, Horbar JH, Zupancic JAF. Evidence, quality, and waste: Solving the value equation in neonatology. Pediatrics. 2016; 137(3): e20150312. PubMed: 26908677

Knutson A, Park ND, Smith D, Tracy K, Reed DJ, Olsen Sl. Just-in-time training: a novel approach to quality improvement education. Neonatal Networks. 2015; 34(1): 6-9. PubMed: 26803040

Profit J, Soll RF. Neonatal networks: clinical research and quality improvement. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2015; 20(6): 410-5. Review. PubMed: 26453046

Soll RF. Progress in the care of extremely preterm infants. JAMA. 2015; 314(10): 1007-8. PubMed: 26348750

Owens JD, Soltau T, McCaughn D, Miller J, O’Mara P, Robbins K, Temple DM, Wender DF. Multi-hospital community NICU quality improvement improves survival of ELBW infants. Journal of the Mississippi State Medical Association. 2015; 56(8): 237-242. PubMed: 26521537

Ho T, Dukhovny D, Zupancic J.A.F., Goldmann DA, Horbar JD, Pursley DM. Choosing wisely in newborn medicine: five opportunities to increase value. Pediatrics. 2015;136(2): e482-9. PubMed: 26195536

Kaempf JW, Zupancic JA, Wang L, Grunkemeier GL. A risk-adjusted, composite outcomes score and resource utilization metrics for very low-birth-weight infants. JAMA Pediatrics. 2015;169(5): 459-465. PubMed: 25774741

Edwards EM, Soll RF, Ferrelli K, Suresh GK, Celenza JF, Horbar JD. Identifying improvements for delivery room resuscitation management: results from a multicenter safety audit. Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology. 2015; 1(2).

Mola SJ, Annibale DJ, Wagner CL, Hulsey TC, Taylor SN. NICU bedside caregivers sustain progress improvement and decrease incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in infants less than 30 weeks gestation. Respiratory Care. 2015;60(3): 309-20. PubMed: 25425704

Manukyan N, Eppstein MJ, Horbar JD. Team learning for healthcare quality improvement. IEEE Access. 2013;1: 545-557. PubMed: 25360395

Olsen SL, Dejonge M, Kline A, Liptsen E, Song D, Anderson B, Mathur A. Optimizing therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy. Pediatrics. 2013;131(2): e591-e603. PubMed: 23296428

Chambers C, Chisholm J, Schriefer J. Respiratory quality improvement in the NICU. RT For Decision Makers In Respiratory Care. 2013.

Eppstein MJ, Horbar JD, Buzas JS, Kauffman SA. Searching the clinical fitness landscape. PLOS One. 2012;7(11): e49901. PubMed: 23166791

Pinheiro JM, Boynton S, Furdon SA, Dugan R, Reu-Donlon C. Use of chemical warming packs during delivery room resuscitation is associated with decreased rates of hypothermia in very low-birth-weight neonates. Advances in Neonatal Care. 2011;11(5): 357-362. PubMed: 22123407

Horbar JD, Leahy K, Handyside J, editors. NICQ 2007: Improvement in Action. Burlington, Vermont: Vermont Oxford Network, 2010. PDF E-book.

Liu WF; NIC/Q 2005 Physical Environment Exploratory Group. The impact of a noise reduction quality improvement project upon sound levels in the open-unit-design neonatal intensive care unit. Journal of Perinatology. 2010;30(7): 489-496. PubMed: 20010612

Payne NR, Finkelstein MJ, Liu M, Kaempf JW, Sharek PJ, Olsen S. NICU practices and outcomes associated with 9 years of quality improvement collaboratives. Pediatrics. 2010;125(3): 437-446. PubMed: 20123773

Pfister RH, Goldsmith JP. Quality improvement in respiratory care: Decreasing bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Clinics in Perinatology. 2010;37(1): 273-293. PubMed: 20363459

Valentine CJ, Fernandez S, Rogers LK, Gulati P, Hayes J, Lore P, Puthoff T, Dumm M, Jones A, Collins K, Curtiss J, Hutson K, Clark K, Welty SE. Early amino-acid administration improves preterm infant weight. Journal of Perinatology. 2009;29(6): 428-432. PubMed: 19444236

Kaempf JW, Campbell B, Brown A, Bowers K, Gallegos R, Goldsmith JP. PCO2 and room air saturation values in premature infants at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Journal of Perinatology. 2008;28(1): 48-54. PubMed: 18033306

Liu WF, Laudert S, Perkins B, MacMillan-York E, Graven S; NIC/Q 2005 Physical Environment Exploratory Group. The development of potentially better practices to support the neurodevelopment of infants in the NICU. Journal of Perinatology. 2007;27(S2): S48-S74. PubMed: 18034182

Laudert S, Liu WF, Blackington S, Perkins B, Martin S, Macmillan-York E, Graven S, Handyside J; NIC/Q 2005 Physical Environment Exploratory Group. Implementing potentially better practices to support the neurodevelopment of infants in the NICU. Journal of Perinatology. 2007;27(S2): S75-S93. PubMed: 18034183

Lesar TS, Anderson ER Jr, Fields J, Saine D, Gregoire J, Fraser S, Parkin M, Mattis A; VHA New England Medication Error Prevention Initiative. The VHA New England Medication Error Prevention Initiative as a model for long-term improvement collaboratives. Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety. 2007;33(2): 73-82. PubMed: 17370918

Sharek PJ, Horbar JD, Mason W, Bisarya H, Thurm CW, Suresh G, Gray JE, Edwards WH, Goldmann D, Classen D. Adverse events in the neonatal intensive care unit: Development, testing, and findings of a NICU-focused trigger tool to identify harm in North American NICUs. Pediatrics. 2006;118(4): 1332-1340. PMID: 17015521

Yeager SB, Horbar JD, Greco KM, Duff J, Thiagarajan RR, Laussen PC. Pretransport and posttransport characteristics and outcomes of neonates who were admitted to a cardiac intensive care unit. Pediatrics. 2006;118(3): 1070-1077. PubMed: 16951000

Gray JE, Ursprung R, Edwards WH, Horbar JD, Nickerson J, Plsek P, Shiono PH, Suresh G, Goldmann DA. Patient misidentification in the NICU: Quantification of risk. Pediatrics. 2006;117(1): e43-e47. PubMed: 16396847

Horbar JD, Plsek PE, Leahy K, Schriefer J. Evidence-based quality improvement in neonatal and perinatal medicine: the NIC/Q 2002 experience. Pediatrics. 2006;118(Suppl 2): S57-S202.

  • Horbar JD, Plsek PE, Schriefer J, Leahy K. Introduction to evidence-based quality improvement in neonatal and perinatal medicine: the NIC/Q 2002 experience. Pediatrics. 2006;118(Suppl2): S57-S64.
  • Payne NR, Lacorte M, Sun S, Karna P, Lewis-Hunstiger M, Goldsmith JP; Breathsavers Group. Evaluation and development of potentially better practices to reduce bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in very low birth weight infants. Pediatrics. 2006;118(Suppl 2): S65-S72. PubMed: 17079625
  • Payne NR, Lacorte M, Karna P, Chen S, Finkelstein M, Goldsmith JP, Carpenter JH; Breathsavers Group. Reduction of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) after participation in the Breathsavers Group of the Vermont Oxford Network neonatal intensive care quality improvement collaborative. Pediatrics. 2006;118(Suppl 2): S73-S77. PubMed: 17079626
  • Sharek PJ, Powers R. Koehn A, Anand KJ. Evaluation and development of potentially better practices to improve pain management of neonates. Pediatrics. 2006;118(Suppl 2): S78-S86. PubMed: 17079627
  • Dunbar AE 3rd, Sharek PJ, Mickas NA, Coker KL, Duncan J, McLendon D, Pagano C, Puthoff TD, Reynolds NL, Powers RJ, Johnston CC. Implementation and case study results of potentially better practices to improve pain management of neonates. Pediatrics. 2006;118(Suppl 2): S87-S94. PubMed: 17079628
  • Dunn MS, Reilly MC, Johnston AM, Hoopes RD Jr, Abraham MR. Development and dissemination of potentially better practices for the provision of family-centered care in neonatology: The family-centered care map. Pediatrics. 2006;118(Suppl 2): S95-S107. PubMed: 17079629
  • Johnston AM, Bullock CE, Graham JE, Reilly MC, Rocha C, Hoopes RD Jr, Van Der Meid V, Gutierrez S, Abraham MR. Implementation and case study results of potentially better practices for family-centered care: The family-centered care map. Pediatrics. 2006;118(Suppl 2): S108-S114. PubMed: 17079612
  • Sims DC, Jacob J, Mills MM, Fett PA, Novack G. Evaluation and development of potentially better practices to improve the discharge process in the NICU. Pediatrics. 2006;118(Suppl 2): S115-S123. PubMed: 17079613
  • Mills MM, Sims DC, Jacob J. Implementation and case study results of potentially better practices to improve the discharge process in the NICU. Pediatrics. 2006;118(Suppl 2): S124-S133. PubMed: 17079614
  • Atwater A, Hartmann E, Brown BB, Carteaux P, Freeman M, Hegwood P, Michael L, Rikli J, Secrest J, Bauman B, Plsek P. Evaluation and development of potentially better practices for staffing in neonatal intensive care units. Pediatrics. 2006;118(Suppl 2): S134-S140. PubMed: 17079615
  • Rikli J, Hegwood P, Atwater A, Bauman B, Brown BB, Carteaux P, Hartmann E, Hilton S, Michael L, Norton L, Secrest J, Sprague P, Plsek P. Implementation and case study results of potentially better practices for staffing in neonatal intensive care units. Pediatrics. 2006;118(Suppl 2): S141-S146. PubMed: 17079616
  • Ohlinger J, Kantak A, Lavin J, Fofah O, Hagen E, Suresh G, Halamek L, Schriefer J. Evaluation and development of potentially better practices for perinatal and neonatal communication and collaboration. Pediatrics. 2006;118(Suppl 2): S147-S152. PubMed: 17079617
  • Zabari M, Suresh G, Tomlinson M, Lavin JP Jr, Larison K, Halamek LP, Schriefer JA. Implementation and case study results of potentially better practices for collaboration between obstetrics and neonatology to achieve improved perinatal outcomes. Pediatrics. 2006;118(Suppl 2): S153-S158. PubMed: 17079618
  • Kantak AD, Grow JL, Ohlinger J, Adams HJ, Knupp AM, Lavin JP Jr. Management of high order multiple births: application of lessons learned because of participation in Vermont Oxford Network collaboratives. Pediatrics. 2006;118(Suppl 2): S159-S168. PubMed: 17079619
  • Lavin JP Jr, Kantak AD, Ohlinger J, Kaempf JW, Tomlinson M, Campbell B, Fofah O, Edwards W, Allbright K, Hagen E, Suresh G, Schriefer J. Attitudes of obstetric and pediatric health care providers toward resuscitation of infants born at the margins of viability. Pediatrics. 2006;118(Suppl 2): S169-S176. PubMed: 17079620
  • Ford SP, Leick-Rude MK, Meinert KA, Anderson B, Sheehan MB, Haney BM, Leeks SR, Simon SD, Jackson JK. Overcoming barriers to oxygen saturation targeting. Pediatrics. 2006;118(Suppl 2): S177-S186. PubMed: 17079621
  • Jackson JK, Ford SP, Meinert KA, Leick-Rude MK, Anderson B, Sheehan MB, Haney BM, Leeks SR, Simon SD. Standardizing nasal cannula oxygen administration in the intensive care nursery. Pediatrics. 2006;118(Suppl 2): S187-S196. PubMed: 17079622
  • Lefrak L, Burch K, Caravantes R, Knoerlein K, DeNolf N, Duncan J, Hampton F, Johnston C, Lockey D, Martin-Walters C, McLendon D, Porter M, Richardson C, Robinson C, Toczylowski K. Sucrose analgesia: identifying potentially better practice strategies. Pediatrics. 2006;118(Suppl 2): S197-S202. PubMed: 17079623

Ursprung R, Gray JE, Edwards WH, Horbar JD, Nickerson J, Plsek P, Shiono PH, Suresh G, Goldmann DA. Real time patient safety audits: Improving safety every day. Quality & Safety in Health Care. 2005;14(4): 284-289. PubMed: 16076794

Horbar JD, Plsek PE, Leahy K, Schriefer J. Evidence-based quality improvement in neonatal and perinatal medicine: The NIC/Q 2000 experience. Pediatrics. 2003:111(Suppl E1): e395-e547.

  • Horbar JD, Plsek PE, Leahy K, Schriefer J. Introduction to evidence-based quality improvement in neonatal and perinatal medicine: The NIC/Q 2000 experience. Pediatrics. 2003;111(Suppl E1): e395-e396.
  • Horbar JD, Plsek PE, Leahy K; NIC/Q 2000. Establishing habits for improvement in neonatal intensive care units. Pediatrics. 2003;111(Suppl E1): e397-e410. PubMed: 12671159
  • Rogowski J. Using economic information in a quality improvement collaborative. Pediatrics. 2003;111(Suppl E1): e411-e418. PubMed: 12671160
  • Baker GR, King K, MacDonald JL, Horbar JD. Using organizational assessment surveys for improvement in neonatal intensive care. Pediatrics. 2003;111(Suppl E1): e419-e425. PubMed: 12671161
  • Sharek PJ, Baker R, Litman F, Kaempf JW, Burch K, Schwarz E, Sun S, Payne NR. Evaluation and development of potentially better practices to prevent chronic lung disease and reduce lung injury in neonates. Pediatrics. 2003;111(Suppl E1) : e426-e431. PubMed: 12671162
  • Burch K, Rhine W, Baker R, Litman F, Kaempf JW, Schwarz E, Sun S, Payne NR, Sharek PJ. Implementing potentially better practices to reduce lung injury in neonates. Pediatrics. 2003;111(Suppl E1): e432-436. PubMed: 12671163
  • Saunders RP, Abraham MR, Crosby MJ, Thomas K, Edwards WH. Evaluation and development of potentially better practices for improving family-centered care in neonatal intensive care units. Pediatrics. 2003;111(Suppl E1): e437-e449. PubMed: 12671164
  • Moore KA, Coker K, DuBuisson AB, Swett B, Edwards WH. Implementing potentially better practices for improving family-centered care in neonatal intensive care units: Successes and challenges. Pediatrics. 2003;111(Suppl E1): e450-e460. PubMed: 12671165
  • Kuzma-O’Reilly B, Duenas M, Greecher C, Kimberlin L, Mujsce D, Miller D, Walker DJ. Evaluation, development and implementation of potentially better practices in neonatal intensive care nutrition. Pediatrics. 2003;111(Suppl E1): e461-e470. PubMed: 12671166
  • Ohlinger J, Brown MS, Laudert S, Swanson S, Fofah O; CARE Group. Development of potentially better practices for the neonatal intensive care unit as a culture of collaboration: Communication, Accountability, Respect, and Empowerment. Pediatrics. 2003;111(Suppl E1): e471-e481. PubMed: 12671167
  • Brown MS, Ohlinger J, Rusk C, Delmore P, Ittmann P; CARE Group. Implementing potentially better practices for multidisciplinary teambuilding: Creating a neonatal intensive care unit culture of collaboration. Pediatrics. 2003;111(Suppl E1): e482-e488. PubMed: 12671168
  • Carteaux P, Cohen H, Check J, George J, McKinley P, Lewis W, Hegwood P, Whitfield JM, McLendon D, Okuno-Jones S, Klein S, Moehring J, McConnell C. Evaluation and development of potentially better practices for the prevention of brain hemorrhage and ischemic brain injury in very low birth weight infants. Pediatrics. 2003;111(Suppl E1): e489-e496. PubMed: 12671169
  • McLendon D, Check J, Carteaux P, Michael L, Moehring J, Secrest JW, Clark SE, Cohen H, Klein SA, Boyle D, George JA, Okuno-Jones S, Buchanan DS, McKinley P, Whitfield JM. Implementation of potentially better practices for the prevention of brain hemorrhage and ischemic brain injury in very low birth weight infants. Pediatrics. 2003;111(Suppl E1): e497-e503. PubMed: 12671170
  • Kilbride HW, Powers R, Wirtschafter DD, Sheehan MB, Charsha DS, LaCorte M, Finer N, Goldmann DA. Evaluation and development of potentially better practices to prevent neonatal nosocomial bacteremia. Pediatrics. 2003;111(Suppl E1):e504-e518. PubMed: 12671171
  • Kilbride HW, Wirtschafter DD, Powers RJ, Sheehan MB. Implementation of evidence-based potentially better practices to decrease nosocomial infections. Pediatrics. 2003;111(Suppl E1): e519-e533. PubMed: 12671172
  • Kaempf JW, Campbell B, Sklar RS, Arduza C, Gallegos R, Zabari M, Brown A, McDonald JV. Implementing potentially better practices to improve neonatal outcomes after reducing postnatal dexamethasone use in infants born between 501 and 1250 grams. Pediatrics. 2003;111(Suppl E1): e534-e541. PubMed: 12671173
  • Jackson JK, Vellucci J, Johnson P, Kilbride HW. Evidence-based approach to change in clinical practice: Introduction of expanded nasal continuous positive airway pressure use in an intensive care nursery. Pediatrics. 2003;111(Suppl E1): e542-e547. PubMed: 12671174

Sharek PJ, Benitz WE, Abel NJ, Freeburn MJ, Mayer M, Bergman DA. Effect of an evidence-based hand washing policy on hand washing rates and false-positive coagulase negative staphylococcus blood and cerebrospinal fluid culture rates in a level III NICU. Journal of Perinatology. 2002;22(2): 137-143. PubMed: 11896519

Horbar JD, Rogowski J, Plsek PE, Delmore P, Edwards WH, Hocker J, Kantak AD, Lewallen P, Lewis W, Lewit E, McCarroll CJ, Mujsce D, Payne NR, Shiono P, Soll RF, Leahy K, Carpenter JH. Collaborative quality improvement for neonatal care. NIC/Q Project Investigators of the Vermont Oxford Network Collaborative Quality Improvement for Neonatal Intensive Care. Pediatrics. 2001;107(1):14-22. PubMed: 11134428

Rogowski JA, Horbar JD, Plsek PE, Schuurmann Baker L, Deterding J, Edwards WH, Hocker J , Kantak AD, Lewallen P, Lewis W, Lewit E, McCarroll CJ., Mujsce D, Payne NR., Shiono P, Soll RF, Leahy K. Economic implications of neonatal intensive care unit collaborative quality improvement. Pediatrics. 2001;107(1): 23-29. PubMed: 11134429

Whitfield J, Charsha D, Sprague P. In search of excellence – the neonatal intensive quality improvement collaborative. Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings. 2001;14(1): 97-98. PubMed: 16369592

Horbar, JD, Gould JB (editors). Evidence-based quality improvement in neonatal and perinatal medicine Pediatrics. 1999;103(Suppl E1): 202-393.

  • Horbar JD, Gould JB. Evidence-based quality improvement, principles, and perspectives. Pediatrics. 1999;103(Suppl E1): 202.
  • Plsek PE. Quality improvement methods in clinical medicine. Pediatrics. 1999;103(Suppl E1): 203-214. PubMed: 9917464
  • Soll RF, Andruscavage L. The principles and practice of evidence-based neonatology. Pediatrics. 1999;103(Suppl E1): 215-224. PubMed: 9917465
  • Bergman DA. Evidence-based guidelines and critical pathways for quality improvement. Pediatrics. 1999;103(Suppl E1): 225-232. PubMed: 9917466
  • Johnson KA, Little GA. State health agencies and quality improvement in perinatal care. Pediatrics. 1999;103(Suppl E1): 233-247. PubMed: 9917467
  • Castles AG, Milstein A, Damberg CL. Using employer purchasing power to improve the quality of perinatal care. Pediatrics. 1999;103(Suppl E1): 248-254. PubMed: 9917468
  • Richardson D, Tarnow-Mordi WO, Lee SK. Risk adjustment for quality improvement. Pediatrics. 1999;103(Suppl E1): 255-265. PubMed: 9917469
  • Slagle TA. Perinatal information systems for quality improvement: visions for today. Pediatrics. 1999;103(Suppl E1): 266-277. PubMed: 9917470
  • Gould JB. Vital records for quality improvement. Pediatrics. 1999;103(Suppl E1): 278-290. PubMed: 9917471
  • Schwartz RM, Gagnon DE, Muir JH, Zhao QR, Kellogg R. Administrative data for quality improvement. Pediatrics. 1999;103(Suppl E1): 291-301. PubMed: 9917472
  • Muldoon JH. Structure and performance of different DRG classification systems for neonatal medicine. Pediatrics. 1999;103(Suppl E1): 319-328. PubMed: 9917473
  • Hack M. Consideration of the use of health status, functional outcome, and quality-of-life to monitor neonatal intensive care practice. Pediatrics. 1999;103(Suppl E1): 319-328. PubMed: 9917474
  • Rogowski J. Measuring the cost of neonatal and perinatal care. Pediatrics. 1999;103(Suppl E1): 329-335. PubMed: 9917475
  • Connor JM, Nelson EC. Neonatal intensive care: satisfaction measured from a parent’s perspective. Pediatrics. 1999;103(Suppl E1): 336-349. PubMed: 9917476
  • Horbar JD. The Vermont Oxford Network: Evidence-based quality improvement for neonatology. Pediatrics. 1999;103(Suppl E1): 350-359. PubMed: 9917477
  • Escobar GJ. The neonatal sepsis work-up: personal reflections on the development of an evidence-based approach toward newborn infections in a managed care organization. Pediatrics. 1999;103(Suppl E1): 360-373. PubMed: 9917478
  • Main EK. Reducing cesarean birth rates with data-driven quality improvement activities. Pediatrics. 1999;103(Suppl E1): 374-383. PubMed: 9917479
  • Kilo CM. Improving care through collaboration. Pediatrics. 1999;103(Suppl E1): 374-393. PubMed: 9917480

Horbar JD. The Vermont-Oxford Neonatal Network: integrating research and clinical practice to improve the quality of medical care. Semin Perinatol. 1995; 19(2): 124-141. PubMed: 7604303

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